Jesus' Omniscience: What Does the Bible Say?

Discover the mind-bending truth about Jesus' omniscience! Uncover the mysteries of His divine knowledge in this thought-provoking article.

Last Updated:
December 25, 2023
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Article Summary

  • Jesus Christ is believed to be omniscient, or all-knowing, according to the doctrine of the Trinity.
  • Biblical evidence supports the belief that Jesus is omniscient.
  • Various interpretations and debates challenge this belief.
  • Jesus' omniscience surpasses human understanding.
  • Exploring Jesus' omniscience can help us gain insight into our lives.

Definition of Omniscience

Omniscience, as defined within our discussion, refers to the all-encompassing knowledge of a being or entity. It is the state of understanding and awareness of all things, past, present, and future.

To explain omniscience further, it is crucial to highlight its significance about Christian theology. Within the framework of Christian belief, God is often regarded as the ultimate embodiment of omniscience. This attribute is attributed to God's divine nature, indicating that God has infinite knowledge and insight into every aspect of existence.

This understanding of omniscience holds important implications for various aspects of Christian doctrine and practice. It shapes the perception of divine sovereignty, as a God who possesses all knowledge is viewed as the ultimate authority and planner of all events. Furthermore, it underpins the concept of divine guidance and providence, as God's omniscience enables Him to provide direction and care for His creation.

In summary, omniscience refers to the comprehensive knowledge of a being or entity, particularly within Christian theology. It signifies the complete understanding and awareness of all things, highlighting God’s divine nature and its implications for various aspects of Christian belief.

Was Christ Jesus All-Knowing (During His Earthly Ministry)?

During Jesus' earthly ministry, there is a theological debate surrounding the extent of his knowledge. I can shed light on this issue as an expert in Christian Theology.

According to traditional Christian belief, Jesus was fully divine and fully human. This means that while he possessed the divine nature, he also experienced human limitations. One aspect of Jesus' omniscience, or all-knowing nature, is often called into question. Did Jesus have access to all knowledge during his time on Earth?

The Scriptures provide evidence of Jesus' divine knowledge. He demonstrated foreknowledge of future events, as seen in his prediction of Peter's denial and resurrection. He also understood people's thoughts and intentions, such as in his conversation with the Samaritan woman.

However, there are instances where Jesus appears to have limited knowledge. For example, he admitted not knowing the day or hour of his second coming. Additionally, he grew in wisdom and stature as a child, indicating a progressive knowledge acquisition.

Theological battles have unfolded over these apparent limitations, with various interpretations offered. Some argue that Jesus voluntarily laid aside his divine attributes while on Earth, thus limiting his knowledge. Others suggest that Jesus possessed partial knowledge, only accessing what was necessary for his mission.

In summary:

  • Jesus' omniscience during his earthly ministry is a subject of debate.
  • He demonstrated divine knowledge, but also showed human limitations.
  • Various theological interpretations exist, including the voluntary self-limitation of knowledge or partial knowledge access.
  • The balance between Jesus' divine and human nature is a complex topic, deserving careful study and contemplation.

The Argument for Jesus’ Omniscience on Earth

One of the key debates in Christian theology revolves around whether Jesus had complete knowledge or omniscience during his time on Earth. This argument stems from the belief in Jesus as fully divine and human. While some theologians argue for Jesus' omniscience, claiming that his divine nature granted him complete knowledge, others propose limitations on his knowledge, emphasizing his human nature. This discussion touches upon various theological concepts such as the hypostatic union, the incarnation, and the idea of Jesus' kenosis or self-emptying.

John 3:20

John 3:20 holds significant meaning within the context of salvation and the teachings of Jesus. In this verse, Jesus states, "For everyone who does evil hates the light and avoids it, so that their deeds may not be exposed." This statement emphasizes the consequences of choosing darkness over light and highlights the importance of truth and righteousness.

By associating evil with darkness and good with light, Jesus highlights the spiritual battle between sin and righteousness. Those who choose darkness are guided by deceit, ignorance, and wrongdoing. They fear exposure and the truth that comes with the light. This verse emphasizes that salvation and a transformed life are only possible when one embraces the light of truth and righteousness.

Furthermore, Jesus' teachings consistently emphasize the importance of truth and righteousness. He presents himself as the embodiment of truth and the light of the world. Through faith in Jesus and aligning oneself with his teachings, individuals can be liberated from the bondage of darkness and experience the salvation offered through his sacrifice.

Key Takeaways:

  • John 3:20 highlights the consequences of choosing darkness over light.
  • The verse underlines the importance of truth and righteousness in salvation.
  • Embracing the light of truth and aligning oneself with Jesus' teachings leads to freedom from darkness.
  • Walking in the light and living righteously are integral to following Jesus' teachings and obtaining salvation.

Matthew 24:36

In Matthew 24:36 and Mark 13:32, Jesus states that neither the Son nor the angels know the hour of his return. This passage holds significant theological implications and provides insight into the nature of Jesus and his relationship with the Father.

Contextually, Jesus is speaking to his disciples about the signs of the end times and his second coming. He emphasizes the uncertainty surrounding the timing of his return, even for himself as the Son of God.

This statement underscores the divine mystery and the limitation of Jesus' earthly knowledge. As the Son, Jesus is both fully divine and fully human. While he possesses divine omniscience, the limitations of his human nature prevent him from having complete knowledge of all things.

There are several possible interpretations for why the Son does not know the hour of his return. One perspective suggests that it reflects the Father's authority and sovereignty over the timing of future events. This implies a harmonious relationship within the Trinity, where the Son willingly defers to the Father's will.

Another interpretation connects the Son's limited knowledge to the incarnation itself, highlighting the voluntary self-emptying of Jesus during his earthly ministry. By limiting his divine knowledge, Jesus identifies with humanity and shows humility.

Key takeaways:

  • Jesus' statement reveals the limitations of his earthly knowledge despite being the Son of God.
  • This emphasizes the mystery of God's plan and the importance of watchfulness for his second coming.
  • It also reflects Jesus' humble and obedient nature, deferring to the Father's sovereignty and authority in determining the timing.

John 16:30

John 16:30 holds particular significance within the context of Christian theology and the key themes and concepts discussed in the background information. This verse is part of a larger passage in the Gospel of John where Jesus speaks to his disciples before his crucifixion, addressing crucial theological ideas such as faith, the role of the Holy Spirit, and the imminent departure of Jesus himself.

In John 16:30, the significance lies in the disciples' acknowledgment of Jesus as the divine Son of God. After witnessing various miracles and teachings, they believe Jesus truly knows and understands everything. This confession signifies the growing awareness among the disciples that Jesus possesses divine wisdom and insight, reinforcing his claim to be the awaited Messiah.

Key themes and concepts captured by this verse include the disciples' journey from doubt to faith, the revelation of Jesus' divine nature, and the transformative power of encountering Christ. It serves as a pivotal moment where the disciples' faith is solidified, and their perception of Jesus is elevated to a higher level.

In summary:

  • John 16:30 highlights the disciples' recognition of Jesus' divine knowledge and understanding.
  • It signifies the disciples' growing faith and understanding of Jesus' true nature.
  • Key themes include the journey from doubt to faith, the revelation of Jesus' divinity, and the transformative power of encountering Christ.

John 21:17

John 21:17 holds great significance within the context of this chapter in the Gospel of John. In the previous verses, Jesus appears to his disciples after his resurrection, and they have just finished eating breakfast together. Throughout this encounter, Jesus seeks to restore and reaffirm Peter's love and commitment to him.

The conversation between Jesus and Peter revolves around a repeated question and response. Jesus asks Peter three times, "Do you love me?" Each time, Peter responds, “Yes, Lord, you know I love you." This repetition carries deep meaning, parallels the three times Peter denied Jesus before his crucifixion. By asking the question three times, Jesus reaffirms Peter's opportunity for redemption and restoration.

Peter's reaffirmation of his love for Jesus carries profound implications. It signifies his recognition of his past failures and his desire to fully commit to Jesus again. Through this conversation, Jesus forgives Peter and entrusts him with a significant responsibility. Jesus tells him to "feed my lambs" and "take care of my sheep," emphasizing Peter's role in shepherding and guiding the early Christian community. This reaffirmation, paired with the instructions, serves as a commission for Peter to continue spreading the message of love and salvation.

Key takeaways:

  • Jesus seeks to restore and reaffirm Peter's love and commitment.
  • The repeated question and response parallels Peter's three denials of Jesus.
  • Peter's reaffirmation signifies recognising past failures and a desire to commit fully.
  • Jesus commissions Peter to shepherd and guide the early Christian community.
  • This passage highlights the transformative power of love, forgiveness, and grace.

John 6:64

John 6:64 holds great significance about the previous teachings of Jesus and foreshadows future events. In this verse, Jesus tells his disciples, "But there are some of you who do not believe." This statement follows the teachings of Jesus, where he speaks about himself as the Bread of Life and the necessity of eating his flesh and drinking his blood for eternal life.

The significance of John 6:64 lies in its context within the broader teachings of Jesus. Jesus had been revealing profound truths about his identity and the nature of salvation. He taught that believing in him and accepting his sacrifice would lead to eternal life. However, some of his disciples struggled with this teaching.

In mentioning their lack of belief, Jesus foreshadows the upcoming events, particularly his betrayal by Judas Iscariot. This verse marks a turning point where Jesus exposes the insincerity of some of his followers. It also reveals his divine knowledge and foreknowledge of his disciples' hearts.

This verse impacts the disciples' understanding by challenging them to reflect on their faith. It causes them to question their commitment to Jesus and exposes their vulnerability to disbelief. It serves as a test of their loyalty and prompts deeper introspection.

The Argument Against Jesus’ Omniscience on Earth

One of the central debates in Christian theology revolves around Jesus' omniscience during his time on Earth. While many Christians believe that Jesus possessed divine knowledge and understanding, there is an argument against this idea. Critics argue that if Jesus was truly omniscient, it would undermine his human nature and the genuine experiences and limitations that he faced. They contend that if he knew everything, he wouldn't have undergone the same struggles, uncertainties, and moral choices humans face daily. This line of reasoning suggests that Jesus' omniscience would diminish the significance of his teachings and the relatability of his example. However, it's important to weigh the pros and cons of this argument and consider its implications for our understanding of Jesus as both divine and human.

Human Knowledge vs. Divine Knowledge

Human knowledge and divine knowledge are fundamentally different in their features and characteristics.

Human knowledge is limited and subjective, acquired through sensory perception, reason, and experience. Individual perspectives, biases, and the finite nature of human understanding influence it. Human knowledge can be fallible, i.e., susceptible to error and change, and it is subject to ongoing development and refinement.

In contrast, divine knowledge is infinite, objective, and transcendent. It derives from the divine nature and perfectly understands all things past, present, and future. Divine knowledge is infallible, meaning it is incapable of error or change. This infallibility results from essential omniscience inherent in the divine nature.

There are differing views on whether divine knowledge is occurrent or dispositional. Occurrent knowledge suggests that divine knowledge is continuously active and "present" to God, where God is aware of all things continuously. Dispositional knowledge, on the other hand, posits that God possesses all knowledge potentially, but it may not be actively accessed unless required.

Aquinas argues that God's knowledge is occurrent, believing that God's eternal nature enables Him to be continuously aware of all things. In contrast, Mavrodes presents a dispositional view, suggesting that God's knowledge is comprehensive but exercised selectively as needed.

In summary:

  • Human knowledge is limited, fallible, and subjective.
  • Divine knowledge is infinite, infallible, and objective.
  • Divine knowledge can be occurrent or dispositional, depending on different theological perspectives.
  • Aquinas supports occurrent knowledge, while Mavrodes suggests a dispositional view.


  • Aquinas, T. (1975). Summa Theologiae. Wiley.
  • Mavrodes, G. I. (1987). Some puzzles concerning omnipotence. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, 3, 216-231.

Ancient Times and Lack of Knowledge

In ancient times, the lack of advanced technology severely limited our understanding of previous civilizations. Unlike today, where we have access to vast information, ancient scholars faced numerous challenges when gathering accurate information about ancient cultures and their practices.

One major challenge was the absence of written records. Many ancient civilizations did not have a writing system or relied on perishable materials like papyrus or bamboo, which deteriorated over time. This made it difficult for scholars to obtain first-hand accounts or comprehensive descriptions of ancient cultures.

Another hurdle was the absence of preserved artifacts. Without advanced techniques for preservation, many ancient artifacts were lost or destroyed over the centuries. This lack of physical evidence made it harder for scholars to understand ancient cultures and their daily lives.

Furthermore, the language barrier presented a significant obstacle. Since languages evolve, deciphering ancient texts proved to be a complex task. It required extensive knowledge of linguistics and a deep understanding of the specific culture to accurately interpret the meaning behind ancient writings.

Key takeaways:

  • The lack of advanced technology in ancient times hindered our understanding of previous civilizations.
  • The absence of written records, preservation of artifacts, and language barriers posed significant challenges for scholars.
  • Accurate information about ancient cultures was difficult to obtain due to these limitations.

Did Jesus Say He Was Omniscient?

The concept of Jesus' omniscience is a subject of interpretation and debate among theologians. While there are varying perspectives, it can be said that Jesus, being divine, possessed knowledge that surpassed human limitations. However, it is important to note that Jesus' statements about his omniscience are not explicitly mentioned in the Bible.

Some argue that Jesus' claim to omniscience can be inferred from passages such as Matthew 11:27, where Jesus states, "All things have been committed to me by my Father. No one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him." This suggests a special knowledge and closeness between Jesus and God the Father.

On the other hand, some perspectives argue Jesus was not omniscient in his human form, pointing to passages like John 14:29, where Jesus says, "I have told you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe." This suggests that Jesus had a level of knowledge that allowed him to proclaim future events, but not necessarily all knowledge.

Furthermore, Jesus' omniscience is often examined in light of Philippians 2, which describes Jesus emptying himself of his divine attributes to take on human form. This raises whether his omniscience was temporarily set aside during his earthly ministry.

In summary:

  • Jesus' omniscience is not explicitly mentioned in the Bible, causing different perspectives to arise.
  • Some argue for Jesus' omniscience based on passages like Matthew 11:27.
  • Others argue that Jesus had limited knowledge in his human form, as suggested in passages such as John 14:29.
  • Jesus' omniscience is also examined about his emptying himself in Philippians 2.


In conclusion, the phrase "Jesus not knowing the time of his second coming" can be interpreted differently within the realm of Christian theology. One interpretation is that Jesus, as the Son of God, possessed omniscience but chose to limit his knowledge in his earthly form. This interpretation suggests that Jesus willingly deferred to the Father's parameters and chose not to exercise his full omniscience while on Earth.

Another interpretation is that Jesus, as a member of the Godhead, deferred to another member of the Trinity regarding the knowledge of the time of his second coming. This perspective suggests that the Father alone holds this knowledge and Jesus voluntarily accepted this limitation in his human form.

Both interpretations acknowledge the concept of Jesus' omniscience but differ in how it is understood about his earthly existence and the parameters set by God the Father. It is important to note that these interpretations are subject to differing theological perspectives and individual beliefs.

In summary:

  • Jesus' limited knowledge of the time of his second coming can be interpreted as a voluntary choice to limit his omniscience while on Earth or
  • He may have deferred to another member of the Godhead, such as the Father, regarding the knowledge of this event.



Several biblical references support the belief in Jesus' omniscience while he lived on earth. These passages highlight Jesus' divine knowledge and understanding of all things.

  1. Matthew 9:4 - In this verse, Jesus demonstrates his omniscience by knowing the thoughts of the Pharisees. He responds to their thoughts before they even speak them aloud.
  2. John 2:24-25 - This passage reveals that Jesus knew people’s hearts, thoughts, and intentions. This displays his omniscience, as he deeply understood human nature.
  3. John 4:16-19 - Jesus meets a Samaritan woman at a well and reveals personal details about her life, including her marital history. This interaction showcases his knowledge of her past, further emphasizing his omniscience.
  4. John 16:30 - Jesus' disciples acknowledge that he knows everything, indicating his omniscience. They affirm their belief in his divine knowledge and understanding.

These verses provide biblical evidence of Jesus' omniscience while he lived on earth. They depict his ability to know people's thoughts, hearts, and personal details not directly revealed to him. This divine knowledge supports the belief that Jesus possesses omniscience, a characteristic attributed to God alone.

Key takeaways:

  • Matthew 9:4 demonstrates Jesus' ability to know the thoughts of others.
  • John 2:24-25 highlights Jesus' understanding of human nature and intentions.
  • John 4:16-19 reveals Jesus' knowledge of personal details about others.
  • John 16:30 affirms the disciples' belief in Jesus' omniscience.

Frequently asked Questions

How does Jesus' omniscience relate to his role in the Trinity?

Jesus' omniscience is an important part of His role in the Trinity:

  • His knowledge surpasses anything we can comprehend
  • He is inextricably connected to God the Father
  • His omniscience gives Him perfect insight into our needs
  • He can guide and transform our lives through His understanding of us
  • His omniscience allows Him to fulfill His purpose and bring about God's plan for salvation.

Did Jesus have limitations to his omniscience while on earth?

  • Jesus was divine and human while on earth, meaning He had limitations to His omniscience.
  • These limitations were part of His divine plan to fully embrace humanity and fulfill His mission of salvation.
  • Despite these limitations, Jesus still demonstrated His divine knowledge and understanding through His actions and teachings.
  • Jesus did not have perfect knowledge of the future nor did He know certain things.
  • His human nature gave Him the unique ability to relate to and understand people on a deep level.

Can you provide examples of instances where Jesus displayed his omniscience?

Jesus' omniscience is remarkable:

  • He can discern true believers from those who are not.
  • He knows people's thoughts and feelings.
  • He skillfully counters any arguments presented to Him.
  • His deep understanding of the human heart shows His divine wisdom.
  • His omniscience is a powerful reminder of His love and knowledge for us.

How does Jesus' ability to discern true believers and know people's thoughts demonstrate his omniscience?

  • Jesus' extraordinary ability to discern true believers and know people's thoughts reveals his divine knowledge and omniscience.
  • He could perceive true faith and intentions, and even hear innermost thoughts of those he encountered.
  • This demonstrated that he possessed knowledge and understanding beyond any human.
  • His omniscience is a testament to his divine nature and ability to intimately connect with people.
  • Jesus' omniscience shows his power to discern and understand humanity.

Are there any objections or counterarguments to the belief in Jesus' omniscience?

  • Belief in Jesus' omniscience is contested by some scholars, who point to instances where Jesus did not seem to know certain things.
  • However, it is suggested that Jesus allowed the will of the Father to be fulfilled, rather than being limited by His knowledge.
  • Despite these objections, Jesus' teachings and discernment of true believers still stands strong.
  • Traditional belief in Jesus' omniscience is challenged, but His profound impact is not diminished.
  • Jesus could read people's thoughts and His teachings remain relevant today.

Did Jesus have limitations to His omniscience while on earth?

During his time on earth, Jesus, despite being divine, voluntarily chose to limit his omniscience. This self-imposed limitation is evident in his statement that he did not know the exact time of his return (Matthew 24:36). The theological perspectives on this matter vary. Still, they generally agree that Jesus' choice to limit his knowledge was part of the incarnation, allowing him to fully identify with human beings.

One perspective suggests that Jesus laid aside some of his divine attributes while maintaining his divine nature. This means that while Jesus retained his essential omniscience, his human consciousness was not aware of all things. Another viewpoint proposes that Jesus, in his humanity, had limited his access to his divine knowledge. Therefore, he relied on the Holy Spirit to reveal what was necessary for his mission during his earthly ministry.

These limitations to Jesus' omniscience highlight the depth of his identification with humanity. By willingly embracing the full scope of human limitations, including limitations to his omniscience, Jesus demonstrated his genuine empathy for our human condition.

Did Jesus possess all knowledge during His time on earth?

  • Jesus possessed all knowledge as the Son of God.
  • He chose to limit His knowledge while in human form.
  • His decision to limit His knowledge was to fully experience human life and fulfill His mission.
  • Jesus Christ demonstrated humility and dependence on the Father.
  • He relied on the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus occasionally displayed His divine knowledge and power through miracles and supernatural understanding.


  • Philippians 2:6-8:
  • Luke 2:52:
  • John 5:19-20:
  • John 8:28-29:

What does it mean for Jesus to be omniscient?

  • Jesus being omniscient means He possesses complete and perfect knowledge of everything.
  • His omniscience is demonstrated through instances such as His knowledge of the woman who touched Him and His prophecy of betrayal by Judas Iscariot.
  • Jesus' understanding is rooted in His oneness with the Father, enabling Him to comprehend all things through their intimate connection.

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Christian Pure Team
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